Written indirect questions either report someone else’s question or introduce a new topic. Direct questions only do these in special circumstances.
CONSTRUCTION OF INDIRECT QUESTIONS
Indirect questions differ from other types of indirect speech in both their construction and some of their uses, and they can as a result be problematic in both areas. This post looks in detail at both the construction and the use of indirect questions. For broader information about indirect speech in general, see 127. When to Use Indirect Speech and 150. Verbs Used with Indirect Speech.
The construction of indirect questions (excepting the kind considered in 183. Parenthetical Statements) has various special features. Consider this:
(a) Visitors will ask where the library is.
The underlined indirect question here has the following differences compared to its direct equivalent where is the library?1
1. A question word at the start.
2. No verb before the subject (the library).
3. Inability to stand alone as a sentence (replaceable by a noun).
4. A full stop at the end, not a question mark.
Point 1 is relevant because questions that are not indirect only sometimes have a question word at the start: they have a verb there when the expected answer is “yes” or “no”. Indirect questions of the yes/no kind, of course, need the question word whether or if (see 99. When to Use “whether … or …). Note that that is not possible before the question word of an indirect question – you just need the question word by itself.
Point 2 implies that indirect questions always contain a grammatical subject. This is true except when their verb is in the infinitive (to) form. For more about this kind of question, see 105. Questions with a “to” Verb.
Point 3 means indirect question sentences need other words besides the question itself (indirect questions by themselves are mostly found in headings – see 178. How to Write a Heading). These other words must contain a verb and, when they are not a parenthesis, they usually begin the sentence, with no comma separating them from the question.
The verb or one of the other words outside an indirect question will usually express a kind of asking or explaining (see 150. Verbs Used with Indirect Speech). In (a) there is the asking verb ask. Other common asking verbs with indirect questions include ENQUIRE, EXAMINE, INVESTIGATE, PONDER, QUESTION and WONDER.
Asking words that are not verbs are often nouns. The following sentence has the asking noun issue:
(b) The ISSUE is why bees are less numerous today.
Explaining words suggest that the person uttering the question already knows the answer and is going to give it rather than discover it. Questions after them seem always to be indirect. Explaining words again do not have to be verbs:
(c) I wish to DEMONSTRATE how dangerous driving at 50 km/h can be.
(d) It is UNKNOWN where Homer lived.
In (d) the negative explaining word unknown is an adjective, typical of sentences starting It is … . For more on indirect questions in such sentences, see 88. Exotic Grammar Structures 1 and 103. Postponed Subjects in “It” Sentences.
USES OF INDIRECT QUESTIONS IN FORMAL WRITING
Like all indirect speech, indirect questions in formal writing have both reporting and non-reporting uses.
1. Indirect Questions Used for Reporting
Indirect questions are not the only means of reporting a question – direct questions can do it too. However, they are the more usual means in formal writing. The reason is that, like indirect speech as a whole, they are the default reporting option: always preferred unless there is a special reason for keeping the exact original wording, such as its cleverness, conciseness or difficulty to paraphrase (see 79. Quotation-Writing Problems and 127. When to Use Indirect Speech).
Indirect questions are particularly necessary when original question wording has to be summarised, guessed or translated. In all of these situations, the original wording is by definition different from that of the report. Consider this:
(e) Columbus wondered whether China was reachable from the east.
The exact wording of Columbus’s question cannot be presented because it is very probably not known at all, it was anyway in a different language (Columbus was Italian), and the question was probably asked many times in many different ways. Literary writers are allowed to invent original words for direct quotation, but that is not appropriate in professional writing.
A particularly common source of indirect questions used for reporting is academic literature reviews, since these are by definition about the thoughts of large numbers of other writers. An indirect reporting question in a literature review might look like this:
(f) Smith (2014: p. 49) clearly explains why sports personalities turn to performance-enhancing drugs.
Advice on naming an original speaker in a literature review – Smith (2014: p.49) in (f) – is in the Guinlist post 76. Tenses of Citation verbs.
2. Indirect Questions not Used for Reporting
In English-speaking cultures, direct questions are often considered an impolite way of asking other people for information. Indirect questions are a means of sounding politer. Here is an example:
(g) Could you tell me where the library is?
The question mark at the end here does not mean that the question is direct – it is necessitated by the part of the sentence outside the underlined indirect question. Moreover, the question is not a reported one, since there is no earlier first utterance of the question – this is the first utterance. For more about the way politeness influences language choices, see 166. Appropriacy in Professional English.
In formal writing, on the other hand, a non-reporting indirect question like (g) would rarely be found because it expects the addressee to answer the question (an exception is essay questions, where a tutor might say explain why… instead of just why…? – see 94. Essay Instruction Words). However, indirect questions with other non-reporting purposes are found quite commonly instead. One major purpose is topic-introducing, like this:
(h) The question is why bees are less numerous today.
The suggestion here is that an answer to the question is about to follow. A sentence like this would probably appear at the start of a paragraph. An alternative is to use the indirect question by itself (without the underlined words) as a heading (see 178. How to Write a Heading).
Direct questions with a topic-introducing purpose (Why are bees less numerous today?) are also possible as either a first sentence or a heading, but are quite informal and hence quite rare in formal English writing. For a further example of a topic-introducing indirect question, see 138. Test your Command of English. For more about informality, see 46. How to Avoid “I”, “We” and “You” and 108. Formal & Informal Words.
An alternative non-reporting use of indirect questions in formal writing is what I call “speech characterisation” – saying something about the question rather than promising an answer. Usually, the characterisation will be done with a particular kind of asking or explaining word outside the question, e.g. it is astonishing why… . Sentence (d) above seems of this kind, as do questions after it is with doubt adjectives such as uncertain (see 103. Postponed Subjects in “It” Sentences). For speech characterisation with other kinds of indirect speech, see 127. When to Use Indirect Speech.
Finally, non-reporting indirect questions are found after according to or in terms of in classification sentences (see 162. The Language of Classification).
THE LINGUISTIC VARIABILITY OF TOPIC-INTRODUCING INDIRECT QUESTIONS
There are various ways of writing a topic-introducing indirect question. Some involve the words accompanying the question and some the question itself.
1. Alternative Wording Alongside the Question
No wording at all is needed alongside an indirect question when it is a title or heading. Elsewhere there are various possibilities resulting from the variety of ways to avoid I and we. Possible wordings include the following:
(h) The question is why bees are less numerous today.
(i) … raises the question of why bees …
(j) It is (now) necessary to consider why …
(k) Consideration will (now) be given to why …
(l) This essay/report will consider why …
Synonyms of key words above are also possible, for example matter or issue instead of question, important or useful instead of necessary, and an investigation (made into …) or an examination (made of …) instead of consideration (given to …). For more about this last kind of wording, see 39. “Decide” or “Make a Decision”? and 141. Ways of Using MAKE.
2. Alternative Wording of the Question Itself
Indirect questions are said above to always need a question word at the start. However, such words can often be paraphrased by nouns. For example, why means the same as reason, where equals place, and how corresponds to way (though often the verb in the question is made into an “action” noun instead – see 131. Uses of “Action” Nouns #6). For a fuller discussion, see 185. Noun Synonyms of Question Words.
Here are some examples of indirect questions beginning with a noun:
(m) It is necessary to understand the reason for bees being less numerous today.
(n) This essay will examine ways of controlling (the control of) traffic growth.
Contexts where noun substitution is not possible are after some asking words, such as WONDER; in questions asked with whether; in sentences starting with it, e.g. it is interesting where … (see 88. Exotic Grammar Structures 1, #8); and alongside a parenthetical asking verb (see 183. Parenthetical Statements).
PRACTICE EXERCISE: REPLACING QUESTION WORDS
To finish, here is an exercise similar to one in my grammar book which gives practice with question nouns. The task is to rewrite the following sentences so that they have no question word (answers below).
1. It is necessary to know what an indirect question is.
2. Footballers must learn when it is best to pass the ball.
3. A major issue was how many attempts to allow.
4. A problem is deciding whether help should be permitted.
1. It is necessary to know the nature/definition of an indirect question.
2. Footballers must learn the best time/moment to pass the ball.
3. A major issue was the number of attempts to allow.
4. A problem is deciding the permissibility of help.
1 An additional feature is sometimes found in indirect questions like (a): the need to adjust pronouns, verb tenses and the like to fit the time and place of the writer. For example, if the question in (a) had our library, the corresponding direct question would probably have your instead of our.