Some verbs have no passive form, but the functions of the passive can be achieved by using a different verb
VARIATION IN THE PROPERTIES OF ENGLISH VERBS
English passive verbs typically comprise some form of BE and a “past” participle. Examples (with the BE part underlined) are is understood, was helped, were being copied, can be taken and should have been known. Sometimes BE is replaced by BECOME or informal GET, e.g. got hit, or even dropped altogether (see 52. Participles Placed after their Noun). Verbs that are not passive are usually called “active”.
Verbs vary in the choices they offer concerning the passive form. One type (e.g. SAY) is compulsorily passive with a particular type of subject noun (“words” instead of “speakers”). Another type (e.g. INCREASE) can be active with any type of subject, but can also sometimes be passive (see 4. Verbs that Don’t Have to be Passive); and a third type (e.g. RISE) cannot ever be passive and so must always be in the active form.
It is verbs of this third type that the present post is about. Lists are provided of some of the more common ones in professional writing, and consideration is given to how a writer might achieve the same sorts of things with them that are achieved with other verbs by making them passive. For information about grammar mistakes that never-passive verbs can cause, see 142. Reasons for Passive Verb Errors.
FEATURES OF NEVER-PASSIVE VERBS
Never-passive verbs cannot reliably be identified from their meaning – the same meaning is sometimes found in two different verbs, one of which can be passive, the other cannot, such as INCREASE/RISE, CONTINUE/LAST and WORSEN/DETERIORATE. However, meanings are not a completely useless guide, and some observations about it are presented in the Guinlist post 21. Active Verbs with Non-Active Meanings 1.
Aside from meaning, a verb’s ability to be made passive is usually indicated by its ability to have an object when in the active form. Verbs like SAY must have an object in this form (though some, like EAT, leave it unmentioned and only “understood”, and are hence what I call “object-dropping”– see 8. Object-Dropping Errors); verbs like INCREASE allow a choice about having an object when they are active; while never-passive verbs like RISE cannot usually have an object (though there are some exceptions).
Never-passive verbs fall into three main groups. One group can make two-word sentences involving no noun at all other than their own subject, like this:
(a) Employment rose.
It is true that object-dropping verbs – e.g. helped in (a) – can also make such sentences. However, they can simply add their understood noun without making the sentence ungrammatical (helped recovery). Never-passive verbs cannot just add a noun – any added noun usually needs a preposition, e.g. in June or across the world.
The second main group of never-passive verbs do allow a noun or equivalent after them as well as before – indeed they normally require one – but such nouns lack the characteristics of an object. More precisely, verbs in this group have a “complement” rather than an object: the noun or noun equivalent in question (sometimes it may even be an adjective) expresses the same idea that the subject does, or it describes the subject, like this:
(b) Unemployment was a problem.
Here, was illustrates the most common complement-taking verb, BE, which of course has no passive form. Other examples are BECOME and SEEM. A few, like EXIST and STAND, need as before their complement. For more about objects and complements, see 8. Object-Dropping Errors.
Thirdly never-passive verbs include a few that actually do need or allow an object. These usually express states rather than actions, many helping to express a physical, especially numerical property. An example is WEIGH as used in the following sentence (object underlined):
(c) The substance WEIGHED 124g after heating.
Other verbs in this category include CONSIST OF, COST, FIT, HAVE (= “possess”), LACK, LAST, MEAN, MEASURE, RESEMBLE and SUIT. For more about the property-expressing use, see 163. Ways of Naming Properties.
A second group of object-taking verbs that cannot be passive are those whose object is a -self word, such as BEHAVE, ENJOY, HELP and IMPROVE. For more examples, see 143. Problems Using “-self” Words.
NEVER-PASSIVE VERBS IN PROFESSIONAL WRITING
All types of never-passive verbs are quite common in professional writing. Of those needing an object, verbs like WEIGH have an obvious value, while -self verbs can be surprisingly suitable too (see the relevant post).
Complement-requiring active verbs are also quite common in professional writing. Typical examples are APPEAR, BE, BECOME, CONTINUE AS, EXIST AS, FEEL, GO, GROW, MAKE, REMAIN, SEEM, SMELL, SOUND, STAND AS, STAND OUT AS, TASTE and TURN. The underlined ones tend to prefer adjective complements to noun ones.
Of verbs with no following noun, like RISE in (a), some are rare in most kinds of professional writing. One large group expresses bodily actions, e.g. BREATHE, DANCE, DIE, JUMP, LAUGH, LIVE, SMILE, SNEEZE and TALK. Also rare are verbs of a “phrasal” kind, like GET BY (= “cope”), GIVE UP (= “despair), GO AHEAD (= “proceed”) and TURN UP (= “attend”). They are often unsuitable because they are stylistically rather informal (see 108. Formal & Informal Words and 139. Phrasal Verbs).
Verbs like RISE that are subjectively common in formal writing might include the following (note that a few are also usable with a following noun, but with a very different meaning):
APPEAR, APPLY (= “be relevant”), ARISE, ARRIVE, COME, DECLINE (= “decrease”), DETERIORATE, DIP (= “decrease slightly”), DISAPPEAR, EMERGE, EXIST, FAIL, FALL, FLOW, FLUCTUATE, FUNCTION, GO, HAPPEN, LAST, LIE, LIVE, MANAGE (= “BE SUCCESSFUL”), OCCUR, PROCEED, PROGRESS, PROTRUDE, RECUR, RESULT, RISE, RUN (= “go”), STAY, SUCCEED (= “be successful”), SURGE, SURVIVE, THINK, TRAVEL, VANISH, WORK.
WAYS TO ACHIEVE PASSIVE VOICE EFFECTS WITH VERBS THAT CANNOT BE PASSIVE
Contrary to the advice of many writing manuals, the English passive voice has some definite uses that should not be underestimated. It can facilitate the positioning of nouns and their equivalents in sentences (see 156. Mentioning What the Reader Knows Already), and it allows nouns and noun equivalents to be left unmentioned without completely “hiding” them (see 27. How to Avoid Passive Verbs and 46. How to Avoid “I”, “We” and “You”).
The wording of the second of these uses is not quite what is found in most English coursebooks. It highlights the fact that “hiding” can be achieved by other means than just the passive voice, and it suggests that the special nature of hiding with the passive is to signal the existence of what is hidden. Compare the following:
(d) After much discussion, a solution emerged.
(e) After much discussion, a solution was found.
Both of these equally well “hide” the source of a solution (the people doing the discussing). However, the passive was found additionally ensures that the reader appreciates the existence (and hard work) of such a source. The active emerged does not do this – the reader might understand that the solution just appeared by itself without any external cause. Further discussion of passive verb meaning can be read in the technical Guinlist article Active-Passive Paraphrases in English and What they Mean for Teaching.
The positioning and “hiding” uses of the passive can still be achieved when the verb that first comes to mind cannot be made passive. The most common solution is to find a completely different verb.
1. Replacement Verbs for Changing Noun Positions
When noun positions are changed by means of a new verb, the passive voice is not inevitable. Consider the active verb substitute below that overcomes the inability of HAVE to be made passive:
(f) Drug abuse has many causes.
(g) There are many causes of drug abuse.
Here, the alternative verb is BE (combined with of). This correspondence is examined in more detail in the Guinlist post 161. Special Uses of “There” Sentences.
In the following example, however, where SUCCEED is the verb that cannot be passive, changed noun positions are achieved by the passive form of a new verb:
(h) The new method succeeded.
(i) Success was achieved by the new method.
Note how the active verb succeeded here has become the related noun success. For more on this sort of paraphrase, see 39. “Decide” or “Make a Decision”? and 173. “Do Research” or “Make Research”?. In this particular case, we could also use a replacement verb in the active voice (Success came with … – see 27. How to Avoid Passive Verbs).
2. Replacement Verbs for Hiding Nouns
In many cases, a never-passive verb will already be “hiding” a source or cause of what it represents. Therefore, the only reason that can exist for finding a substitute is not so much to hide anything as to emphasise that hiding is being done. This means only passive verb substitutes can be used. When they are preferred, the positions of the mentioned nouns will remain the same.
Here are likely passive-verb alternatives to some of the other never-passive verbs listed above. In some cases the passives equate to one particular meaning of the never-passive verb rather than others.
APPEAR: BE FORMED
ARRIVE/COME: BE BROUGHT
BECOME/TURN: BE MADE
DETERIORATE: BE MADE WORSE
DISAPPEAR/VANISH: BE REMOVED/BECOME HIDDEN
EXIST: CAN BE SEEN/NAMED/LISTED
FAIL: NOT BE ACHIEVED
FALL: BE REDUCED
FLOW: BE CHANNELLED
FUNCTION: BE OPERATED
GO: BE TAKEN/BE SENT/BE CHANNELLED
HAPPEN: BE BROUGHT ABOUT
LAST: BE MAINTAINED
LIE: BE LAID (see 97. Verb Form Confusions)
OCCUR: BE BOUGHT ABOUT
PROCEED: BE LED FORWARD
PROTRUDE: BE EXTENDED
RISE: BE RAISED (see 97. Verb Form Confusions)
RUN: BE DIRECTED
SEEM/APPEAR: BE PERCEIVED
RECUR: BE REPEATED
REMAIN/STAY: BE KEPT
RESULT: BE CAUSED/BE CREATED
TRAVEL: BE TRANSPORTED
WORK: BE EMPLOYED
Note that if finding a different verb like one of the above proves difficult, the alternative strategy of looking for a related noun is again possible. Consider this example from the post 46. How to Avoid “I”, “We” and “You”:
(j) I proceeded later.
The relevant noun here is procedure. To avoid I a suitable passive verb might be was commenced.
Finally, it is worth remembering that the passive is quite often a worse choice than an intransitive verb: there must be a special reason for using it. Critics of the passive are not wrong in saying that the active is more common.