148. Infinitive Verbs without “to”



There are quite a lot of situations that make it possible or necessary to write an infinitive verb without “to”


English language courses usually make it clear quite early on that “infinitive” verbs (those that lack an ending after to) are sometimes used without the to. A well-known occasion, for example, is after “modal” verbs like will, can, should and must. However, detailed surveys of all the situations where so-called “bare” infinitives are possible or necessary are much harder to find. It is this kind of survey that I am attempting in the present post, in the hope of resolving every possible uncertainty that readers might have about the use of bare infinitives. I will consider first situations where dropping to is optional, and then those where it is compulsory.

A preliminary point to note is that the to of infinitive verbs is not a preposition (see 3. Multi-Use Words and 35. “to do” versus “to doing”). It normally helps to distinguish infinitives from other verbs without an ending, such as imperatives (see 128. Imperative Verbs in Formal Writing), subjunctives (see 118. Problems with Conditional “if”, #6), and plurals in the present simple tense (see 12. Singular & Plural Verb Choices).

Guinlist posts about the ordinary use of to in infinitive verbs include 60. Purpose Sentences with “For”,  78. Infinitive versus Preposition after Nouns,  83. Active Verbs with Non-Active Meanings 2,  105. Questions with a “to” Verb and 119. BE Before a “to” Verb.



The to of an infinitive verb is most commonly optional when the infinitive is the second of a pair that are combined together by a suitable linking word. In most cases the linking word will be a conjunction, especially and:

(a) To paraphrase well, one has to comprehend and (TO) REMEMBER the source text.

The optionality of to before remember here is not surprising, given the way and generally in English allows repeated words to be dropped (see 36. Words Left out to Avoid Repetition and 64. Double Conjunctions). The conjunction than is another common one found with a dropped to:

(b) Children are often keener to play with their parents than (to) watch TV.

Note, though, that when than is combined with rather, a dropped to is compulsory:

(c) It is acceptable to walk briskly rather than run gently.

Situations where the to of an infinitive is optional but not linked to one used earlier are quite rare, but do exist. One kind begins with what or all that:

(d) WHAT/ALL (THAT) plants do at night IS (to) absorb carbon dioxide.

This kind of sentence is considered in depth in the Guinlist post 145. The Highlighting Use of “What”. The words at the start are not the only feature: the verb is emphasized by being mentioned twice, first in abbreviated form by means of DO and then as an infinitive after is. The to of such infinitives is usually optional.

One other place where a bare infinitive is optional but not linked to an earlier infinitive with to is after the verb HELP and its object, like this:

(e) Nicotine chewing gum can help smokers (to) quit.



There seem to be at least four situations where a bare infinitive must be used.

1. After Modal Verbs

This familiar kind of bare infinitive is illustrated in such combinations as will know, can go, may be, must have and should say. There is also a use after DO (does not think). A small potential for confusion is with the “semi-modals” NEED and DARE, since they sometimes require an infinitive with to and sometimes one without.

NEED and DARE are called “semi-modal” because in the question and negative forms they can (but do not have to) be used like modal verbs. If they are so used, a bare infinitive will be necessary. Compare the following:

Non-Modal Use (with to)

Negative Statement: … does not need/dare TO SAY

Question: does … need/dare TO SAY?

Modal Use (without to)

Negative Statement: need not/dare not SAY

Question: need/dare … SAY?

In one sense, DARE and NEED in negative statements and questions allow a free choice over the use of to, since the modal and non-modal uses are both possible. However, once it has been decided to use NEED or DARE as a modal – for example by placing not after it instead of before in a negative statement, or a subject noun after it instead of before in a question – then there is no choice about dropping to from the following verb.

Sometimes the need for to to be dropped because of a modal verb even affects sentences like (d) above, where there would normally be a choice regarding to. This happens when the first mention of a verb after what includes a “modal” verb, e.g. can do or will do instead of just do. In such cases the second (infinitive) mention will also not be able to have to – the choice will disappear (… is absorb carbon dioxide).


2. After the Object of Particular “Cause” Verbs

The Guinlist post 32. Expressing Consequences lists various “cause” verbs that can be followed by an infinitive, provided there is also an object noun in between, like this:

(f) Price increases usually CAUSE demand TO FALL.

Most verbs like cause in this example (ALLOW, ASSIST, ENABLE, LEAD etc.) require the following infinitive to have to. However, there are at least three exceptions: MAKE (= “cause by forcing”), LET (= “cause by allowing”) and HAVE (= “cause by organizing”). Either of the first two can be used instead of cause in (f), but will need to fall to drop its to (see 10. Words with Unexpected Grammar 1 and 141. Ways of Using MAKE). The way to use causative HAVE is shown in the following sentence from the post 116. Rarer Uses of HAVE:

(g) It is desirable to have young children work in groups.


3. After the Object of Perception Verbs

This usage may be illustrated as follows:

(h) On SEEING the liquid CHANGE colour, turn off the heat.

The verb see is one of perception. Others like it are FEEL, HEAR, LISTEN TO, NOTICE, OBSERVE, SMELL and WATCH. The subsequent bare infinitive (change) is not the only possible verb form, but is compulsory for expressing the particular meaning of a completed rather than ongoing action. The alternative form, for ongoing actions, is an -ing participle (see 52. Participles Placed Just after their Noun). Having -ing instead of a bare infinitive for a completed action would be a grammar error of the “invisible” kind (see 100. What is a Grammar Error?).

The verb HAVE – whether given the causative meaning illustrated in (g) or the “suffer” one shown below – also allows a following verb to have either -ing or a bare infinitive according to how complete the meaning is:

(i) Farmers can easily have pests eat(ing) their crops.


4. In Infinitival “Why” Questions

Questions based on an infinitive verb are the focus of the Guinlist post 105. Questions with a “to” Verb. They comprise at least a question word and an immediately-following infinitive verb, as in what to do(?), where to go(?) and whether to respond. Usually the infinitive verb needs to. However, the to must be dropped when the question word is why (e.g. why agree?).


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