There are various reasons why a writer might prefer to express an action with a noun instead of a verb
CHARACTERISTICS OF “ACTION” NOUNS
Various Guinlist posts highlight the fact that in English an action can sometimes be expressed as easily by a noun as by a verb. Nouns with this use (e.g. movement) are usually related to a similarly-spelt verb (move). Many have a characteristic suffix (-ment, -tion, -al, -ure, -ence etc.), but some, like change and increase, do not. Most action nouns are uncountable, but can also be used in a countable way to express a different, non-action meaning (see 14. Action Outcomes and 19. Activity Locations).
The properties of action nouns make them very similar to gerunds – verbs given noun-like properties by the addition of -ing (see 70. Gerunds); the two forms are indeed often interchangeable, as in the following example:
(a) Success (= Succeeding) in examinations follows hard work (= working hard).
However, action nouns are not exactly the same as gerunds. They cannot replace a gerund anticipated by an earlier it (see 103. Using “it” for a Subsequent Verb), whereas in some other places they are the better choice. This post is mainly about the special value of action nouns. Some of the points are repeated from other posts, but the aim here is to give a more complete overview. Much of what is suggested should be understood as applicable to gerunds as well (though perhaps with slightly less formality), unless there is a statement to the contrary.
LIST OF ACTION NOUN USES
1. Saying Something about an Action
Compare the following:
(b) Penicillin was discovered by Fleming.
(c) The discovery of penicillin (by Fleming) has saved many lives.
Sentence (b) is focussed on naming an event, and does so with a verb. Sentence (c) names the same event, but is more focussed on adding something extra about it (perhaps assuming the event itself to be already familiar to the reader – see 156. Mentioning what the Reader Knows Already). To achieve this new focus, the event is made into the subject of another verb. This means it must be a noun. Its own subject and object then need prepositions before them (see 31/49. Prepositions after Action Nouns 1/2).
In other cases, an action might be the object of a verb or follow a preposition, like this:
(d) Doctors celebrate the discovery of penicillin.
(e) Many lives have been saved since the discovery of penicillin.
Gerunds do not seem the same as action nouns in this use. For example, replacing discovery in (c) above with discovering feels a little strange. The reason may be that gerunds, like other -ing words, give more focus to the time during an action, and hence in (c) would suggest that the saving of lives happened while the discovering was taking place, rather than after it.
A gerund would be more suitable than an action noun in a statement like seeing is believing (= belief develops during seeing). The two different ways of viewing actions are often called “aspect” in grammar. More examples are in the posts 52. Participles Placed Just after their Noun, 103. Using “it” for a Subsequent Verb and 148. Infinitive Verbs without “to”.
One kind of information that professional writers seem especially fond of providing about actions is their relation to other actions – a function typically associated with conjunctions, e.g.
(f) If excess alcohol is consumed, consciousness is lost.
The conjunction if here expresses the relation of cause-effect between the two underlined verbs (see 118. Problems with Conditional “If”). For other conjunction meanings, see 40. Conjunctions versus Connectors.
Sentences like (f) can often be paraphrased quite easily with action nouns:
(g) Consumption of excess alcohol causes loss of consciousness.
Here, with the two actions expressed by nouns, the verb-linking conjunction if has become the noun-linking verb causes. Other common verbs that can replace a conjunction in this way are LEAD TO (= if, as, since, because), RESULT IN (= if, as since, because), CONTRIBUTE TO, ALLOW, ENABLE, PERMIT, ENSURE, FACILITATE, DEPEND ON, RESULT FROM (= because, since), REQUIRE, NECESSITATE, INVOLVE, PREVENT (= so that … not), MINIMISE, MAXIMISE, PRECEDE (= before), FOLLOW (= after) and ACCOMPANY (= while, when).
A major question when a conjunction is possible is why action nouns might be preferable, since they are unwieldy and very formal-sounding. Sometimes I think that professional writers do overuse action nouns at the expense of simplicity. However, one possible advantage is that, like connectors, they – or rather the verb accompanying them – allow the relation to be expressed more precisely, since conjunctions can be quite vague (see 40. Conjunctions versus Connectors).
2. Showing Links between Sentences
One reason why a writer might want to say something about an action rather than just name it is that the naming has already been done in a previous sentence, like this:
(h) The heat of the sun causes moisture to evaporate. This evaporation enables clouds to form.
In such cases, the action noun is performing the secondary role of linking sentences together. More on linking by means of repetition is in the post 37. Subordination: Grammar for Good Repetition. Quite often, the repetition is helping to create a “connector synonym” (see 112. Synonyms of Connectors), showing a sentence relation like “result”. Note that this is a common partner of noun-form repetition at the start of a sentence (see 28. Pronoun Errors).
3. Avoiding Undesirable Words
Word avoidance is a familiar concept in explanations of passive verbs, thanks to their ability to leave the subject of their active equivalent unmentioned. Verb subjects might need to be avoided for any of various reasons, such as being too informal (an especial problem with I/we/you – see 46. How to Avoid “I”, “We” and “You”), or too obvious to mention (e.g. the police arrested the culprit), or unknown (e.g. someone broke the window), or a secret.
Action nouns facilitate avoidance of undesirable subjects in the same way as passive verbs. They are particularly useful when the subject is of a verb that cannot go into the passive voice because it is either intransitive (see 113. Verbs that cannot be Passive) or already passive, as in these examples:
(i) The river flows northwards.
(j) I was interviewed in the summer.
The subject in (i) can be avoided by changing the underlined words to The flow is …, while informal I in (j) disappears with The interview took place … . In both cases, the verb is changed into its corresponding action noun (flow, interview) along with an appropriate “dummy” verb (is, took place) to keep the sentence grammatical.
At first sight, action nouns seem useful for avoiding unwanted objects as well as subjects. Consider the way the uninformative word matter is avoided here:
(k) The committee finally made a decision (= decided the matter).
In fact, the countable noun a decision here is not strictly an “action” one, but rather an “action outcome” (see 14. Action Outcomes). Such nouns seem the norm when an object needs to be omitted. For more examples, see 39. “Decide” or “Make a Decision”?
Note that subjects and objects of verbs do not have to be dropped when the verb becomes an action noun. For advice on how to keep them, see 49. Prepositions after Action Nouns 2.
4. Avoiding a Passive Verb
Sentence (j) above illustrates a passive verb replaced by an action noun in order to leave its subject unmentioned. Sometimes, however, a passive verb is not as suitable as an action noun simply because the passive form itself is undesirable. The Guinlist post 27. How to Avoid Passive Verbs defends the use of passive verbs but admits that sometimes their avoidance might be better. Here is an example of a passive verb with an acceptable subject that nevertheless might be better as an action noun:
(l) Failure to declare restricted goods will necessitate their being confiscated (by customs).
The underlined passive here has the virtue of enabling customs to be left unmentioned, but is rather unwieldy. Its replacement by the action noun confiscation makes the sentence smoother. For similar examples, see 65. Verbs that Mean “Must” or “Can”.
In (l) the context implies that the action noun corresponds to a passive verb. Where this is not the case, we can sometimes indicate a passive meaning by making an action noun the object of a special verb like UNDERGO or HAVE, e.g. undergo treatment/have a shower (see 21. Active Verbs with non-Active Meanings 1 and 116. Rarer Uses of HAVE).
5. Naming Actions in Contexts Demanding Nouns
Sometimes when we come to mention an action, the surrounding words or the situation prevent our using a verb. There is a good example in the post 93. Good and Bad Lists:
(m) Foreign language learning requires motivation and … .
Here, we could not use the verb phrase study regularly because we are continuing a list that has begun with a noun (motivation), the rule being that the first item in a list determines the grammatical form of all the others. The problem is solved by changing study regularly into regular study: a noun combined with an adjective instead of a verb plus adverb. One could also use the gerund phrase studying regularly, but the noun use is shorter.
Nouns are also required after prepositions (see 84. Seven Things to Know about Prepositions). Actions are probably not a common kind of meaning in this situation, but a few particular prepositions seem especially likely to have one. One is means-showing by (see 73. Ways of Saying How), as in this example:
(n) Optimum commodity prices can be found by construction of a demand curve.
The gerund form constructing seems smoother here (it needs no following of – see 70. Gerunds), but sometimes an action noun will fit better. Action nouns are also common after for in contexts where it can express a purpose (see 60. Purpose Sentences with “for”).
Another noun-requiring context is titles and headings. For example, instead of saying X is Analysed, one would normally write Analysis of X. It seems especially common to find essay instruction verbs made into nouns in this way.
6. Asking “How” Questions Indirectly
Indirect questions can begin with either a noun or a question word (see 57. Indirect Questions in Formal Writing). In “how” questions, a starting noun is likely to be an action one, like this:
(o) This chapter explains demand measurement (= how to measure demand).
PRACTICE EXERCISE (ACTION NOUNS)
Interested readers are invited to try and reword each of the following with an action noun (Answers below).
1. When temperatures rise, clouds form (Showing a relation).
2. It is necessary to analyse how colds are spread (Asking a “how” question).
3. Forests are being destroyed at an alarming rate (Avoiding a passive).
4. Nobody likes it when they lose vital data (Talking about an action).
5. Herds of wildebeest periodically migrate across Tanzania seeking food. An amazing spectacle is created (Showing text links).
6. Workers can reduce malaria if they minimise mosquito bites (Action after by).
7. To alleviate poverty, the Government must act (Showing a relation).
8. Visual aids will help an audience to enjoy a presentation (Avoiding an unwanted verb subject).
9. You must not take photographs (Avoiding an unwanted subject).
10. It is important to observe changes (Talking about an action).
Suggested Answers (Action Nouns Underlined)
1. A rise in temperatures causes the formation of clouds.
2. It is necessary to analyse the spread of colds.
3. The destruction of forests is happening at an alarming rate.
4. Nobody likes the loss of vital data.
5. Herds of wildebeest periodically migrate across Tanzania seeking food. This migration creates an amazing spectacle.
6. Workers can reduce malaria by minimisation of mosquito bites.
7. The alleviation of poverty requires Government action.
8. Visual aids will help (audience) enjoyment of a presentation.
9. Photography is prohibited/not allowed.
10. Observation of changes is important.